On Jan. 22, 1944, Operation Shingle, an Allied amphibious landing against Axis forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy, began. The resultant combat during this part of World War II’s Italian Campaign became known as the Battle of Anzio.
On Jan. 22, 1980, Andrei Sakharov, the Soviet physicist who helped build the Soviet Union’s hydrogen bomb, was arrested in Moscow after criticizing the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan. He was subsequently stripped of his scientific honors and banished to the remote city of Gorky. Sakharov’s exile to Gorky ended in 1986, when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev allowed his return to Moscow. In 1969, an essay Sakharov wrote attacking the arms race and Soviet political repression had been smuggled out of the USSR and published in The New York Times. In 1975, he became the first Soviet to win the Nobel Peace Prize.